A documented and illustrated checklist of land, mangrove and rivers Decapoda is proposed for Mayotte region. The study area is situated between longitudes 43-48° E and latitudes 11-13°10’ S. It includes Mayotte Island, Comoros Islands, and Glorioso Islands. Records of the species are from a fieldwork at Mayotte in November 2009, complemented by a literature review. 58 species are listed including 24 new records for Mayotte region. The inventory includes 42 crabs, 11 shrimps and 5 coenobitids (Birgus latro, Coenobita spp.). Crabs Grapsoidea (Cardisoma, Geograpsus, Grapsus, Metasesarma, Metopograpsus, Neosarmatium, Pachygrapsus, Parasesarma, Perisesarma, Pseudograpsus, Pseudohelice, Ptychognathus, Sesarmops, Thalassograpsus, and Varuna) are best represented together with the Ocypodoidea (Chaenostoma, Dotilla, Macrophthalmus, Ocypode, and Uca). Shrimps belong to the genera Atyoida, Caridina, Macrobrachium, and Palaemon. Biotopes investigated include rivers, mangroves, estuaries, land, and coastal areas with a special attention paid to Malamani mangrove in the west coast of Mayotte Island. The fauna of Mayotte region is predominantly indo-west pacific in its composition (45 species). Thirteen species are distributed only in the western Indian Ocean, but only one is perhaps endemic to the region. A comparison with the fauna of the Seychelles Islands shows that at least 6 additional species, widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific, are potentially also present in Mayotte region.