A documented and illustrated checklist of the Anomura is presented for the Mayotte region, Western Indian Ocean. The study area is situated between longitudes 43-48° E and latitudes 11-13°10’ S. It includes Comoros, Mayotte, and Glorioso Islands plus three marine banks (Zélée, Geyser, Leven). Records included are from fieldwork in Mayotte during November 2009, and complemented by a review of the literature. In total 75 species are listed including 43 new records for the Mayotte region. The inventory includes 51 Paguroidea, 22 Galatheoidea, 1 Chirostyloidea (Eumunida sp.) and 1 Hippoidea (Hippa adactyla). The Diogenidae are best represented with 29 species of Aniculus, Areopaguristes, Calcinus, Ciliopagurus, Clibanarius, Dardanus, Diogenes, Paguristes and Pseudopaguristes. Other families represented are the Porcellanidae, with 13 species of the Aliaporcellana, Neopetrolisthes, Pachycheles, Petrolisthes, Pisidia, Polyonyx; the Paguridae, with 11 species of Anapagrides, Catapagurus, Cestopagurus, Pagurixus, Pagurus, Pylopaguropsis, Trichopagurus; and the Galatheidae, with 7 species of Galathea and Macrothea. Only a few species are listed for the families Coenobitidae, with 5 species of Birgus and Coenobita; Parapaguridae, with 3 species of Paragiopagurus, Strobopagurus, Sympagurus; Pylochelidae, with 3 species of Cheiroplatea, Pomatocheles, Trizocheles; Munididae, with 2 species of Munida and Sadayoshia; and Chirostylidae, with 1 species of Eumunida. Biotopes investigated include the intertidal area (on foot at low tide) and shallow-waters of the lagoon (scuba diving between 0-62 m). Based on previous marine campaigns in Mayotte region, 11 species are also reported in the 200-700 m depth range. The anomuran fauna of Mayotte region is predominantly Indo-West Pacific in its composition (85 % of the species). Twelve species are distributed in Western Indian Ocean only. A comparison with the anomuran fauna of adjacent regions shows that at least 129 anomuran species are potentially present in Mayotte region. Groups that need better sampling include Hippoidea, Diogenidae, and Porcellanidae.